JNS-cover.jpgJournal of Neurological Sciences

Vol 357 | No. 1-2 | 15 October 2015 | Pages 1-346


Predictors associated with stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting: A systematic review

Zhifeng Mao, Xiaonan Zhong, Junjie Yin, Zhihua Zhao, Xueqiang Hu, Maree L. Hackett

Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the predictors of perioperative stroke after CABG.

The natural history of brain volume loss among patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Timothy Vollmer, James Signorovitch, Lynn Huynh, Philip Galebach, Caroline Kelley, Allitia DiBernardo, Rahul Sasane

Multiple sclerosis has been associated with progressive brain volume loss.


Original Articles

Pain perception in major depressive disorder: A neurophysiological case–control study

Sandro Zambito Marsala, Michele Pistacchi, Pierluigi Tocco, Manuela Gioulis, Federico Fabris, Francesco Brigo, Michele Tinazzi

Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour.

Altered expression of metabolic proteins and adipokines in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

S.T. Ngo, F.J. Steyn, L. Huang, S. Mantovani, C.M.M. Pfluger, T.M. Woodruff, J.D. O'Sullivan, R.D. Henderson, P.A. McCombe

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper cortical and lower motor neurons. ALS causes death within 2–5 years of diagnosis. Diet and body mass index influence the clinical course of disease, however there is limited information about the expression of metabolic proteins and fat-derived cytokines (adipokines) in ALS. In healthy controls and subjects with ALS, we have measured levels of proteins and adipokines that influence metabolism.

Spatio-temporal assessment of the neuroprotective effects of neuregulin-1 on ischemic stroke lesions using MRI

Silun Wang, Yonggang Li, Ramesh Paudyal, Byron D. Ford, Xiaodong Zhang

The neuroprotective effects of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) on stroke lesions were assessed longitudinally in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) using MRI. Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 16, 250 ± 20 g) underwent permanent MCAo surgery with cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitored by laser doppler flowmetry at ipsilateral side of bregma for 20 min post-occlusion. A single 50 μl bolus dose of NRG-1 or vehicle was administered into the left internal carotid artery immediately prior to MCAo. The expansion of the ischemic lesion into the cortex was attenuated by NRG-1 over a 48-hour (h) time span as measured by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).          

Association of the Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease gene ARHGEF10 with paclitaxel induced peripheral neuropathy in NCCTG N08CA (Alliance)

Ganesh K. Boora, Amit A. Kulkarni, Rahul Kanwar, Peter Beyerlein, Rui Qin, Michaela S. Banck, Kathryn J. Ruddy, Josef Pleticha, Cynthia A. Lynch, Robert J. Behrens, Stephan Züchner, Charles L. Loprinzi, Andreas S. Beutler

The predisposition of patients to develop polyneuropathy in response to toxic exposure may have a genetic basis. The previous study Alliance N08C1 found an association of the Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) gene ARHGEF10 with paclitaxel chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) related to the three non-synonymous, recurrent single nucleotide variants (SNV), whereby rs9657362 had the strongest effect, and rs2294039 and rs17683288 contributed only weakly. In the present report, Alliance N08CA was chosen to attempt to replicate the above finding.        

Temporal profile of M1 and M2 responses in the hippocampus following early 24 h of neurotrauma

Mubeen A. Ansari

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits complex inflammatory assets (M1 and M2 responses) in the brain that include the expression of various cytokines/chemokines and the recruitment of blood cells, contributing secondary injury cascades (SIC), and also recovery processes. The modulation of such inflammatory assets might be a therapeutic option following TBI. The present study assesses a temporal profile of various molecular markers of M1 and M2 response in the hippocampus after TBI. Following a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) on young rats, hippocampal tissues of each brain were harvested at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 24 h post trauma.            

Clinical features, diagnostic findings, and treatment of Susac syndrome: A case series

Ivana Vodopivec, Nagagopal Venna, Joseph F. Rizzo III, Sashank Prasad

Susac syndrome (SS) is a rare, presumed autoimmune condition characterized by the clinical triad of branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAOs), encephalopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, diagnostic results, treatment, and outcomes in SS.

Chromosome 12p13 variants contribute to large artery atherosclerotic stroke risk in a Chinese population

Zhizhong Zhang, Gelin Xu, Wusheng Zhu, Wen Bai, Liping Cao, Yunyun Xiong, Min Li, Xiaobing Fan, Hua Li, Minmin Ma, Wenhua Liu, Renliang Zhang, George Liu, Xinfeng Liu

Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified two common variants (rs12425791 and rs11833579) on Chromosome 12p13 that confer risk for stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these two variants are associated with risk of large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke in a Chinese population. Rs12425791 and rs11833579 were genotyped using the improved multiple ligase detection reaction in 423 patients with LAA stroke and 423 healthy controls. We found a statistically significantly increased risk of LAA stroke associated with the rs12425791AA genotype (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.15–4.51) and rs11833579 AA genotype (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.16–3.15) compared with their GG genotype.        

Factors influencing the survival period in Japanese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Yasushi Iwasaki, Akio Akagi, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida

Although Japanese cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) generally involve longer survival periods compared to those from other countries, details regarding the factors influencing survival are unclear. To determine the influence of certain factors on survival, we retrospectively assessed 51 Japanese MM1-type sCJD patients with respect to background, clinical course, and disease management. No significant differences were found between men and women, tracheotomy and nontracheotomy patients, or patients treated in public and other types of hospitals.

Brainstem dysfunction protects against syncope in multiple sclerosis

Mario Habek, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Luka Crnošija, Ivan Adamec

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) and brainstem dysfunction evaluated with the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) score and conventional MRI.

Use of the King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in junior rugby league

D. King, P. Hume, C. Gissane, T. Clark

To determine whether the King–Devick (K–D) test used as a sideline test in junior rugby league players over 12 matches in a domestic competition season could identify witnessed and incidentally identified episodes of concussion.

Sevoflurane post-conditioning protects primary rat cortical neurons against oxygen–glucose deprivation/resuscitation via down-regulation in mitochondrial apoptosis axis of Bid, Bim, Puma–Bax and Bak mediated by Erk1/2

Li-Min Zhang, Xiao-Chun Zhao, Wen-Bo Sun, Rui Li, Xiao-Jing Jiang

Temporal post-conditioning helps provide neuroprotection against brain injury secondary to ischemia-reperfusion and is considered an effective intervention, but the exact mechanism of sevoflurane post-conditioning is unclear. The essential axis involves activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s), Bax, and Bak; activates the mitochondrial death program; and might be involved in a cell death signal. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to decrease neuronal death.        

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for prognosis of long-term cognitive treatment outcomes in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Madoka Nakajima, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Chihiro Akiba, Hidenori Sugano, Takeshi Hara, Keiko Fusegi, Kostadin Karagiozov, Hajime Arai
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2015.07.001
  • p88–95
  • Published online: July 2 2015
  • Open Access
  • Abstract
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The prognosis of cognitive improvement after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains uncertain, with no reports on CSF biomarkers related to long-term cognitive prognosis. We performed a preliminary study of CSF biomarker protein levels for cognitive outcome prognostication of two-year outcomes after shunt treated iNPH in 36 patients (13 women) with a median age of 75 years (IQR 69–78). CSF biomarkers included soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP, sAPPα, sAPPβ), amyloid β (Aβ)1–38, Aβ1–42 and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)/β-trace, and cystatin C. 

Audiovestibular impairments associated with intracranial hypotension

Jae-Hwan Choi, Kee-Yong Cho, Seung-Yi Cha, Jae-Deuk Seo, Min-Ji Kim, Yu Ri Choi, Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Kwang-Dong Choi

To investigate the patterns and mechanisms of audiovestibular impairments associated with intracranial hypotension.

Isolated cerebellar involvement in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Dujuan Li, Lifei Lian, Suiqiang Zhu

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a serious and increasingly recognized disorder in humans. However, isolated cerebellar involvement in PRES is extremely uncommon. In this study, we sought to investigate its clinical and radiological features by describing a cohort of cases with PRES and isolated cerebellar involvement.

Natalizumab modulates the humoral response against HERV-Wenv73–88 in a follow-up study of Multiple Sclerosis patients

Giannina Arru, Elisa Caggiu, Stefania Leoni, Giuseppe Mameli, Maura Pugliatti, Gian Pietro Sechi, Leonardo A. Sechi

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that begins as an inflammatory autoimmune disorder mediated by auto-reactive lymphocyte followed by microglial activation and chronic degeneration. The etiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is unknown but several data support the hypothesis of possible infectious agents which may act as a trigger for the pathogenic cascade. Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-W/MSRV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Mycobacterium avium ss.

Clinical characteristics of leg restlessness in Parkinson's disease compared with idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome

Xiao-Ying Zhu, Ye Liu, Xiao-Jin Zhang, Wen-Hao Yang, Ya Feng, William G. Ondo, Eng-King Tan, Yun-Cheng Wu

There is limited data on motor restlessness in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we evaluate for clinical differences between cohorts of idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome (iRLS), PD patients with leg restlessness, and PD with RLS.

Behr syndrome with homozygous C19ORF12 mutation

Ilka Kleffner, Caroline Wessling, Burkhard Gess, Catharina Korsukewitz, Thomas Allkemper, Anja Schirmacher, Peter Young, Jan Senderek, Ingo W. Husstedt

Behr syndrome, first described in 1909 by the ophthalmologist Carl Behr, is a clinical entity characterised by a progressive optic atrophy, ataxia, pyramidal signs and mental retardation. Some reported cases have been found to carry mutations in the OPA1, OPA3 or C12ORF65 genes which are known causes of pure optic atrophy or optic atrophy complicated by movement disorder.

Neuroprotective effect of nicorandil through inhibition of apoptosis by the PI3K/Akt1 pathway in a mouse model of deep hypothermic low flow

Di Yu, Changfeng Fan, Weiyan Zhang, Zhongyuan Wen, Liang Hu, Lei Yang, Yu Feng, Ke-Jie Yin, Xuming Mo

Nicorandil exerts a protective effect on ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in the brain and kidney through anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which nicorandil protects against I/R injury induced by deep hypothermic low flow (DHLF) remains unclear.

Temporal trends in vascular risk factors and etiology of urban Polish stroke patients from 1995 to 2013

Jan P. Bembenek, Michał Karlinski, Tadeusz A. Mendel, Maciej Niewada, Iwona Sarzynska-Dlugosz, Adam Kobayashi, Anna Baranowska, Anna Czlonkowska

Despite estimates about general trends in stroke epidemiology worldwide, there are only a few reports of detailed longitudinal data and none of them reflects the economic transition that occurred in Central and Eastern Europe over the last two decades. The aim of this study was to investigate long term trends in risk factors and their pre-stroke control as well as acute stroke clinical presentation and etiology in Polish urban setting.

Assessment of bilateral cerebral peduncular infarction: Magnetic resonance imaging, clinical features, and prognosis

WenHuo Chen, Tingyu Yi, Yuehong Chen, Meifang Zhang, Zongzhong Wu, Yanmin Wu, Bailing Chen, Tinghui Guo, Chaoxin Wu, Miaoxiong Yang, Xuejiao Chen, Yanchuan Shi

Bilateral cerebral peduncular infarction (BCPI) is an extremely rare neurological disorder, and related literature is scarce. This study investigated the clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and prognosis of BCPI.

Neurological involvement and characterization in acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adulthood

Sean M. Gratton, Tasha R. Powell, Brett J. Theeler, Jason S. Hawley, Faria S. Amjad, Carlo Tornatore

To describe the neurological and neuroradiological features of acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adulthood by reporting a series of cases.

Influence of timing on electrodiagnosis of Guillain–Barré syndrome in the first six weeks: A retrospective study

Yusuf A. Rajabally, Fu Liong Hiew, John B. Winer

The effect of timing is uncertain on the electrophysiology of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS). On this may however depend the usefulness of systematic serial studies performed at specific time intervals. We retrospectively analyzed records of 118 consecutive patients with GBS from Birmingham, U.K. (2001–2012), studied between 0–14 days, or, 15–42 days post-onset using new criteria which we recently proposed [4]. Rates of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) (p = 0.45), axonal GBS (p = 0.32) and equivocal forms (p = 0.46) were similar for both timings.             

Postural instability in Parkinson Disease: To step or not to step

Kristopher Kimmell, Vinay K. Pulusu, Kersi J. Bharucha, Elliott D. Ross

Postural instability is a key feature of Parkinson Disease that is associated with falls and morbidity. We designed a pull apparatus to quantitatively measure the force needed to pull subjects off-balance. Thirteen Controls and eight individuals with Parkinson Disease (PD) were evaluated. All individuals with PD reported subjective symptoms of postural instability and were symptomatic for approximately 9.4 years when tested. No significant differences were found between Controls and PD subjects in the magnitude of force required to pull them off-balance.

Arabic cross cultural adaptation and validation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

Haitham M. Hussein, Amr Abdel Moneim, Tamer Emara, Yousry A. Abd-elhamid, Haitham H. Salem, Foad Abd-Allah, Mohammad A. Farrag, M. Amir Tork, Ali S. Shalash, Khaled H. Ezz el dein, Gamaleldin Osman, Shady S. Georgy, Peter G. Ghali, Patrick D. Lyden, Ramez R. Moustafa

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the most commonly used tool to quantify neurological deficit in acute stroke, was initially developed in English. We present our experience in developing and validating an Arabic version of the NIHSS (arNIHSS).

Neuregulin-1 protects against acute optic nerve injury in rat model

Wei Yang, Tao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Bin Song, Yan Zhang, Zhao-Hui Li, Qian Hao, Zhi-Hua Cui, Hong Lei Liu, Chun Ling Lei, Jun Liu

In this study, we employed a rat model and examined the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in response to optic nerve injury to understand the role of NRG-1 in conferring protection against acute optic nerve injury.

Mutational spectrum of the SPAST and ATL1 genes in Korean patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hyunwoong Park, Seong-Ho Kang, Seungman Park, So Yeon Kim, Soo Hyun Seo, Seung Jun Lee, Jung Ae Lee, Sung Im Cho, Jung-Joon Sung, Kwang-Woo Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Sung Sup Park, Moon-Woo Seong

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by insidiously progressive lower-extremity weakness and spasticity. Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPAST) is the most common type of uncomplicated autosomal dominant HSP (40% of such cases), and spastic paraplegia 3A (ATL1) is the second most common. Here, we conducted mutational analysis of the SPAST and/or ATL1 genes in 206 unrelated patients with HSP. DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to analyze SPAST or ATL1 pathogenic variants.

123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and neurocirculatory abnormalities in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

Joong-Seok Kim, Hyung-Eun Park, Yoon-Sang Oh, In-Uk Song, Dong-Won Yang, Jeong-Wook Park, Kwang-Soo Lee

Although adoption of new clinical criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) leads to an increase in the proportion of patients diagnosed with probable DLB, the sensitivity of clinical diagnostic criteria of DLB is low, and there are no generally accepted clinical or imaging biomarkers to distinguish DLB from other types of dementia. In this study, we investigated whether neurocirculatory abnormalities and cardiac sympathetic denervation differed in controls and patients with subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and DLB.

Differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease by MRI-based dynamic cerebrospinal fluid flow

Yusuke Fukui, Nozomi Hishikawa, Kota Sato, Taijun Yunoki, Syoichiro Kono, Kosuke Matsuzono, Yumiko Nakano, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Kentaro Deguchi, Koji Abe

The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference between PSP and PD from the viewpoint of dynamic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow focusing on the midbrain aqueduct.

Overexpression Bax interacting factor-1 protects cortical neurons against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through regulation of ERK1/2 pathway

Qiang Yun, Mingfang Jiang, Jun Wang, Xiangyu Cao, Xinfeng Liu, Sheng Li, Baomin Li

Bax interacting factor-1 (Bif-1), a multifunctional protein, can regulate cell apoptosis and autophagy. Up-regulation of Bif-1 expression has been associated with neuronal survival. Moreover, several studies have reported that Bif-1 is involved in ischemic stroke. However, the specific function of Bif-1 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is not well understood. The aim of this study is to expose the potential protective effect of Bif-1 against cerebral I/R injury and its related mechanism.

Efficacy and safety of NABOTA in post-stroke upper limb spasticity: A phase 3 multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial

Hyung Seok Nam, Yoon Ghil Park, Nam-Jong Paik, Byung-Mo Oh, Min Ho Chun, Hea-Eun Yang, Dae Hyun Kim, Youbin Yi, Han Gil Seo, Kwang Dong Kim, Min Cheol Chang, Jae Hak Ryu, Shi-Uk Lee

Botulinum toxin A is widely used in the clinics to reduce spasticity and improve upper limb function for post-stroke patients. Efficacy and safety of a new botulinum toxin type A, NABOTA (DWP450) in post-stroke upper limb spasticity was evaluated in comparison with Botox (onabotulinum toxin A). A total of 197 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were included in this study and randomly assigned to NABOTA group (n = 99) or Botox group (n = 98). Wrist flexors with modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) grade 2 or greater, and elbow flexors, thumb flexors and finger flexors with MAS 1 or greater were injected with either drug.        

Comparison of clinical, electrophysiological, sonographic and MRI features in CIDP

K. Pitarokoili, M. Schlamann, A. Kerasnoudis, R. Gold, M.-S. Yoon

We investigated the applicability of nerve ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

Impact of dabigatran on platelet function and fibrinolysis

Argirios E. Tsantes, Elias Kyriakou, Stefanos Bonovas, Maria Chondrogianni, Christina Zompola, Chrissoula Liantinioti, Athina Simitsi, Aristeidis H. Katsanos, Maria Atta, Ignatios Ikonomidis, Violetta Kapsimali, Petros Kopterides, Georgios Tsivgoulis

We sought to evaluate the potential enhanced fibrinolytic and antiplatelet activity of dabigatran etexilate (DE) due to decreased thrombin levels in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Negative work events reported online precede job loss in multiple sclerosis

Seth E. Frndak, Lauren N. Irwin, Victoria M. Kordovski, Kristen Milleville, Carrie Fisher, Allison S. Drake, Ralph H.B. Benedict

Determine if a recently validated online survey of negative work events can predict future job loss among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.

Changes of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 levels in serum and urine of patients with white matter lesions

Yuyuan Li, Yang Sun, Jian Li, Zhe Wang, Yongzhong Lin, Ling Tang, Dandan Xia, Tiezheng Zheng, Xiaohan Yang, Li Sha, C.K. Sun

Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has been established as a potential biomarker of neuronal damage. There is not much information about the effects of white matter lesions (WMLs) on serum and urine UCH-L1 levels in white matter disease patients. This study was aimed to assess whether serum or urine UCH-L1 levels are a reliable marker of brain damage in patients with WMLs.

Emotional processing in patients with mild cognitive impairment: The influence of the valence and intensity of emotional stimuli: The valence and intensity of emotional stimuli influence emotional processing in patients with mild cognitive impairment

Carmen M. Sarabia-Cobo, Beatriz García-Rodríguez, Mª. José Navas, Heiner Ellgring

We studied the ability of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to process emotional facial expressions (EFEs). To date, no systematic study has addressed how variation in intensity affects recognition of the different type of EFEs in such subjects.

A genetic association study of two genes linked to neurodegeneration in a Sardinian multiple sclerosis population: The TARDBP Ala382Thr mutation and C9orf72 expansion

L. Lorefice, Murru, G. Fenu, D. Corongiu, J. Frau, S. Cuccu, G.C. Coghe, S. Tranquilli, E. Cocco, M.G. Marrosu

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation and accompanied and followed by neurodegeneration. Missense mutations of the TAR DNA Binding Protein gene (TARDBP) located in the chromosome 1p36.22 region, and the hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) are pathogenic in other neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Assuming that TARDBP Ala382Thr mutation and C9orf72 expansion may underlie MS, we evaluated their frequency in a large cohort of MS patients and controls from Sardinia, an island characterized by a very high frequency of MS and an unusual genetic background.  

Temporal aspects of visual perception in demyelinative diseases

N. Raz, G. Shear-Yashuv, Y. Backner, A.S. Bick, N. Levin

The study aims to test whether impaired conduction velocities following optic neuritis (ON) serve as a limiting factor on various temporal, as compared to static, aspects of vision. Critical Flicker fusion frequency (CFFF), two motion perception tasks (object and number-from-motion extraction tasks), high and low contrast acuities, and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were assessed in 23 ON patients. Strong correlations were found between the various dynamic visual function scores. Furthermore, regression models revealed that each of the dynamic visual functions significantly predicted VEP latencies.

Trends in stroke admission and mortality rates from 1983 to 2013 in central Ghana

Fred S. Sarfo, John Akassi, Dominic Awuah, Sheila Adamu, Clara Nkyi, Mayowa Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele

Accumulating data based on model-derived estimates suggest rising rates of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa over the next several decades. Stroke is a leading cause of death, disability, and dementia worldwide. Directly enumerated hospital-based data on the longitudinal trajectory of stroke admissions and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa could help hospital administrators, public health officials, and government policy-makers with planning and utilization of scarce resources.

Montreal–Toulouse Language Assessment Battery: Evidence of criterion validity from patients with aphasia

Karina Carlesso Pagliarin, Karin Zazo Ortiz, Simone dos Santos Barreto, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Jean-Luc Nespoulous, Yves Joanette, Rochele Paz Fonseca

The Montreal–Toulouse Language Assessment Battery — Brazilian version (MTL-BR) provides a general description of language processing and related components in adults with brain injury.

Pitfalls in the diagnosis of leprous neuropathy: Lessons learnt from a University hospital in an endemic zone

Madhu Nagappa, Yasha T. Chickabasaviah, Anita Mahadevan, Raja Parthiban, Arun B. Taly

Leprosy is the oldest disease known to mankind and has piqued humans since Before Christian Era (BCE) [1]. The causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, was the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans. Effective treatment, viz, Promin, was introduced only in the 1940s. Multi-drug therapy came into vogue in the 1970s [2,3] and was popularised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 1980s. This resulted in a rapid decline in the new case detection rates [4]. Global efforts to eliminate leprosy have met with only partial success and the disease continues to prevail in certain endemic pockets in the developing countries [5–8].

Developmental alterations of the auditory brainstem centers — Pathogenetic implications in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Anna M. Lavezzi, Giulia Ottaviani, Luigi Matturri

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), despite the success of campaigns to reduce its risks, is the leading cause of infant death in the Western world. Even though the pathogenesis remains unexplained, brainstem abnormalities of the neuronal network that mediates breathing and protective responses to asphyxia, particularly in the arousal phase from sleep, are believed to play a fundamental role. This is the first study to identify, in SIDS, developmental defects of specific brainstem centers involved in hearing pathways, particularly in the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, in the superior olivary complex and in the inferior colliculus, suggesting a possible influence of the acoustic system on respiratory activity.

Convection-enhanced delivery of MANF — Volume of distribution analysis in porcine putamen and substantia nigra

N.U. Barua, A.S. Bienemann, M. Woolley, M.J. Wyatt, D. Johnson, O. Lewis, C. Irving, G. Pritchard, S. Gill

Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a 20 kDa human protein which has both neuroprotective and neurorestorative activity on dopaminergic neurons and therefore may have application for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The aims of this study were to determine the translational potential of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of MANF for the treatment of PD by studying its distribution in porcine putamen and substantia nigra and to correlate histological distribution with co-infused gadolinium-DTPA using real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

The role of p38MAPK signal pathway in the neuroprotective mechanism of limb postconditioning against rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

Hao Li, Suxian Zhou, Lan Wu, Kaixiang Liu, Yuhu Zhang, Guixian Ma, Lijuan Wang

It has been reported that remote ischemic postconditioning was able to protect from a harmful ischemia occurring in brain. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK signal pathway in the process of neuroprotection and anti-apoptosis following remote limb ischemic postconditioning on rat focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: the sham-operated group, I/R group, limb ischemic postconditioning (LPostC) group, and LPostC + SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) group.   

Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in a rural area in Vietnam

Luan Nguyen The, Cong Nguyen Huu

Critical illness polyneuropathy, myopathy and polyneuromyopathy, grouped under the term CIP/CIM, share several risk factors and are associated with debilitating outcomes.


Short Communications

Exon 8–17 deletions of SPAST in a Chinese family with hereditary spastic paraplegia: A case report and literature review

Kang Wang, Guohua Zhao

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. SPG4 is the most common autosomal dominant form of HSP subtypes and is caused by mutations of the SPAST gene. Here we reported a Chinese family with HSP caused by deletion of exons 8–17 of the SPAST gene and reviewed the clinical phenotypes of patients with exon deletion that were reported in literatures. The patients with deletions of exons in the SPAST gene showed pure HSP, and the age at onset showed interfamily and intrafamily variations.

A Parkinson's disease tele-education program for health care providers in Cameroon

Esther Cubo, Jacques Doumbe, Erero Njiengwe, Paul Onana, Raul Garoña, Josue Alcalde, Joaquin Seco, Natividad Mariscal, Becky Manyi Epundugu, Sixto Cubo, Maria Jesus Coma

In Sub-Saharan countries, most patients with Parkinson's disease are underdiagnosed and untreated, with a marked shortage of qualified personnel.

Recurrent, alternating orbital inflammation

Akiyuki Hiraga, Satoshi Kuwabara

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) describes a group of benign non-infectious inflammatory disorders within the orbit. The subtype of IOI includes isolated dacryoadenitis, orbital myositis, orbital apex syndrome and others [1]. Typically, IOI presents with a unilateral acute clinical course and bilateral presentation is rare in adults [2]. In this report, we present the case of a woman with a history of over 50 years of relapsing–remitting and alternating attacks of orbital pain or painful ophthalmoplegia due to orbital inflammation, mainly myositis of extraorbital muscles.


Letters to the Editor

Coexistence of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia in a Turkish patient

Semiha Kurt, Ece Kartal, Durdane Aksoy, Betul Cevik, Asli Gundogdu Eken, Irmak Sahbaz, A. Nazli Basak

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay (ARSACS) is a distinct form of hereditary early-onset spastic ataxia and is related to progressive degeneration of the cerebellum and spinal cord [3]. People with ARSACS typically have abnormal tensing of the muscles (spasticity), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), muscle wasting (amyotrophy), involuntary eye movements (nystagmus), and speech difficulties (dysarthria).