eNeurologicalScieNeurologicalSci Vol 24

September 2021

Original Articles

Lifetime prevalence of epilepsy in urban Tanzania – A door-to-door random cluster survey

Dominik Stelzle, Veronika Schmidt, Bernard J. Ngowi, William Matuja, ... Andrea S. Winkler

  • Article 100352
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100352
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  • Abstract

    Epileptic seizures and epilepsy in urban settings of low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) are largely under-researched, but their prevalence is necessary for good healthcare planning. This study aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of epileptic seizures and epilepsy in urban Dar es Salaam.

Immunotherapies in chronic adhesive arachnoiditis - A case series and literature review

Jana Hackert, Louisa Maßmann, Ulrich Sure, Michael Forsting, ... Tim Hagenacker

  • Article 100350
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100350
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  • Abstract

    Chronic spinal adhesive arachnoiditis (CSAA) is a rare condition with limited therapeutic options. Surgical treatment proves effective in approximately 60% of cases. Conservative treatment options have not been extensively investigated. Here, we report the course of the disease, analyze the effect of immune treatments in patients with CSAA who were treated in the University Hospital Essen between 2015 and 2020, and conduct a literature review. Three out of four patients showed no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids, methotrexate, or plasmapheresis. All non-responders suffered from CSAA for several years, while one patient who had a disease duration of less than one month fully recovered. It is necessary to verify whether treatment at an early stage of the disease is better than treatment after chronic adhesion manifestation, as it interrupts the development of adhesions and all subsequent complications.

Pediatrics COVID-19 and neurological manifestations: Single tertiary centre experience

Lama Aljomah, Sara Almedlej, Duaa Baarmah, Waleed Altwaijri, ... Mohammad Alshalaan

  • Article 100355
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100355
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  • Abstract

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory syndrome that is caused by a novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It originated in China late December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on March 12, 2020. Most reports of COVID-19 cases either presented with neurological manifestations or complications involve adults. Only few cases were reported in pediatric patients

    To report COVID-19 pediatric cases with neurological manifestations and identify the wide spectrum of its manifestations.

    This was a retrospective, observational case series. Data of pediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting with neurological manifestations at King Abdullah Specialized Children Hospital in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh were collected from May 23 to June 30, 2020.

Effectiveness of structured exercises on motor skills, physical fitness and attention in children with ADHD compared to typically developing children-A pilot study

S. Jeyanthi, Narkeesh Arumugam, Raju K. Parasher

  • Article 100357
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100357
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  • Abstract

    Purpose: Children with ADHD exhibit decrements in fitness levels, motor skill ability and attention. The purpose was to evaluate the benefits of a structured, school-based exercise program on motor skill, physical fitness and attention in children with ADHD. Method: Ten 8–12 year old school boys with ADHD and ten typically developing (TD) were recruited. They underwent a six week structured exercise program which included aerobics, resistance exercises, motor skills and attention training. Results: Following the 6 week, school -based exercise program significant improvements in physical fitness, motor skills and attention were observed in ADHD children compared to the TD children. Additionally, the exercise sessions were acceptable and enjoyable to all children. Conclusion: It is proposed that an exercise program be incorporated in school physical education curriculum. Exercises should be considered, in addition to other forms of intervention, as an essential treatment for improving problems associated with ADHD in school children.

The demographics of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in Qatar

Fateen Ata, Zohaib Yousaf, Suresh Nalaka Menik Arachchige, Saman Rose, ... Muhammad Zahid

  • Article 100359
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100359
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  • Abstract

    Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare disease that manifests mainly as painful unilateral ophthalmoplegia. It is caused by an inflammatory process of unknown aetiology within the cavernous sinus with a rare intracranial extension. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)- 3 diagnostic criteria aids in its diagnosis. There is limited literature on its varied presentations, diagnosis, and management. Steroids are used in the treatment of THS with varied success.

Neurological disorders encountered at an out-patient clinic in Ghana's largest medical center: A 16-year review

Albert Akpalu, Patrick Adjei, Kodwo Nkromah, Foster Osei Poku, Fred Stephen Sarfo

  • Article 100361
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100361
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  • Abstract

    With a rising age of its population, sub-Saharan Africa(SSA) is currently experiencing an unprecedented rise in burden of neurological disorders. There is limited data on the demographic profile of neurological diseases in SSA.

    To describe the spectrum of neurological disorders at the adult neurology clinic at Ghana's leading medical center.


Case Reports

Bilateral carotid dissection due to Eagle syndrome in a young female

Walter R. Duarte-Celada, Dongkwan Jin, Gabriel Neves, Thomas Windisch

  • Article 100353
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100353
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  • Abstract

    Eagle syndrome (ES) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the elongation of the temporal bone's styloid process, or calcification of stylohyoid ligament, compressing surrounding structures causing pharyngalgia. One of its variants, the styloid-carotid artery syndrome, produces symptoms by compression of the external or internal carotid arteries (ICA). Here, we present a case of a 43-year-old woman with ES and bilateral ICA dissections. The patient underwent staged bilateral angioplasty and covered stent placement, followed by styloidectomy. A computerized tomography angiogram revealed patency of both stents at a two-year follow-up.

A case of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus

Atsushi Shima, Takakuni Maki, Naoya Mimura, Hirofumi Yamashita, ... Ryosuke Takahashi

  • Article 100351
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100351
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  • Abstract

    The pathomechanisms and treatment strategy for rare presentations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) remain to be determined. We report a 67-year-old woman with APS who presented with ischemic stroke due to RCVS. She was treated with low-dose cilostazol and lomerizine hydrochloride, which resulted in functional improvement and recovery of vasoconstriction within 12 weeks. Her plasma endothelin-1 level was decreased after relief of vasoconstriction, compared with the pre-treatment condition. Increased plasma endothelin-1 may be related to the underlying pathomechanism of RCVS with APS, against which cilostazol and lomerizine hydrochloride could be effective.

Lactate peak in muscle disclosed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a patient with CPEO-plus syndrome

Sung-Pin Fan, Hsueh-Wen Hsueh, Hsin-Chieh Huang, Koping Chang, ... Chih-Chao Yang

  • Article 100360
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100360
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  • Abstract

    A 25-year-old man complained of progressive diplopia and limb weakness for 3 years. Mitochondrial myopathy was suspected according to clinical presentation, elevated serum lactate concentration, and muscle histopathology. However, next-generation mtDNA sequencing (mtDNA NGS) of the blood only revealed a likely benign variant in the MT-CO1 gene (m.6510G > A). An mtDNA NGS study on the muscle sample revealed a large mtDNA deletion (m.5788–m.16071). The patient was diagnosed as having CPEO-plus syndrome related to the large mtDNA deletion. Notably, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a doublet peak at 1–2 ppm in his edematous right vastus lateralis, which indicated lactate accumulation. Thus, muscle imaging and appropriate genetic tests facilitated the diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy.

A neurologist who suffered from transient global/partial amnesia: A case report

Yusuke Mon, Osam Isono, Shigeru Takaoka, Naomi Tokura

Neuropathy/intranuclear inclusion bodies in oculopharyngodistal myopathy: A case report

Tomoyasu Matsubara, Yuko Saito, Takashi Kurashige, Mana Higashihara, ... Shigeo Murayama

IgG4-related hypothalamo-hypophysitis

Yuki Urushida, Daisuke Ishikawa, Mayuri Yanaizumi, Takumi Nakamura, ... Mikio Shoji

An autopsied FTDP-17 case with MAPT IVS 10 + 14C > T mutation presenting with frontotemporal dementia

Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Shigeo Murayama, ... Masato Hasegawa

Binasal hemianopia caused by bilateral optic perineuritis due to sarcoidosis

Nozomu Tawara, Shunya Nakane, Noritaka Kudo, Takayuki Kosaka, ... Yukio Ando