JNS.jpgThe January issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 456 is now available online.


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Issue highlights


Review Article

Botulinum toxin treatment in parkinsonism

Anandan et al.

Published online: November 26, 2023

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1989 for facial movement disorders and strabismus, but since that time its indications have been expanding beyond neurologic and ophthalmologic disorders.

This article is a narrative review of the therapeutic use of BoNT in tremors, dystonia, sialorrhea, bladder and other autonomic symptoms, levodopa-induced dyskinesia and other problems occuring in the setting of parkinsonism. Though FDA approval is lacking for some of these indications, expert experiences have shown that BoNT is often beneficial in this group of patients.


Research Article

Clinicopathologic characteristics of Nocardia brain abscesses: Necrotic and non-necrotic foci of various stages

Kisiel et al.

Published online: December 20, 2023

Nocardia brain abscesses are rare bacterial infections associated with a high mortality rate, and their preoperative diagnosis can be difficult for various reasons including a nonspecific clinical presentation. While late-stage nocardial brain abscesses may be radiologically characteristic, early-stage lesions are nonspecific and indistinguishable from another inflammatory/infectious process and other mimics. Despite the paucity of previous histopathological descriptions, histopathological examination is critical for the identification of the pathogen, lesion stage(s), and possible coexisting pathology.

In this study, we examined the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of 10 patients with brain nocardiosis. Microscopic findings were analysed in correlation with clinical and radiological features in 9 patients, which revealed that brain nocardiosis was characterized by numerous necrotic and non-necrotic foci of various stages (I-IV) along with Nocardia identification, as well as the leptomeningeal involvement in most cases, and co-infection of brain nocardiosis with toxoplasmosis in 2 patients. The imaging features were characteristic with a multilobulated/bilobed ring-enhancing appearance in 8 patients including 2 patients with multiple lobulated and non-lobulated lesions and 1 patient showing the progression from a non-lobulated to lobulated lesion.

These findings suggest that nocardial brain abscesses particularly at late-stages share common characteristics. Nevertheless, given the complex pathologic features, including possible co-infection by other pathogens, nocardial brain abscesses remain a therapeutic challenge.


Research Article | Open Access

Non-lesional white matter changes depicted by q-space diffusional MRI correlate with clinical disabilities in multiple sclerosis

Motegi et al.

Published online: December 19, 2023

The authors previously developed an optimized q-space diffusional MRI technique (normalized leptokurtic diffusion [NLD] map) to delineate the demyelinated lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Herein, we evaluated the utility of NLD maps to discern the white matter abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and the abnormalities' possible associations with physical and cognitive disabilities in MS.

The NLD map revealed abnormalities in the non-lesional white matter, providing valuable insights for evaluating manifestations in MS patients.


Research Article

Clinical and neuroimaging factors associated with 30-day fatality among indigenous West Africans with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Komolafe et al.

Published online: December 20, 2023

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with a high case fatality rate in resource-limited settings. The independent predictors of poor outcome after ICH in sub-Saharan Africa remains to be characterized in large epidemiological studies. We aimed to determine factors associated with 30-day fatality among West African patients with ICH.

This study identified risk and protective factors associated with 30-day mortality among West Africans with spontaneous ICH. These factors should be further investigated in other populations in Africa to enable the development of ICH mortality predictions models among indigenous Africans.