JNS.jpgThe January issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 451 is now available online.


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Issue highlights

Research Article

Ultraearly repeated systemic thrombolysis in recurrent ischemic stroke – A multicentre case study

Etgen et al.

Published online: June 14, 2023

The study analysed outcomes of patients who received off-label repeated thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke recurrence within 10 days (ultraearly repeated thrombolysis, UERT).

In the analysis UERT led to early clinical improvement and a favourable clinical outcome in a high percentage of patients with ICH rates comparable to prior publications. UERT might be considered in patients with early recurrent stroke under careful risk-benefit assessment.

Research Article

Paranasal sinuses opacification on magnetic resonance imaging in relation to brain health in sporadic small vessel disease – Systematic review and pilot analysis

Sáenz de Villaverde Cortabarría et al.

Published online: July 17, 2023

The paranasal sinus mucosal thickening, visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), maybe a source of inflammation in microvessels, but its relationship with small vessel disease (SVD) is unclear. We reviewed the literature and analysed a sample of patients with sporadic SVD to identify any association between paranasal sinus opacification severity and SVD neuroimaging markers.

The literature review, after screening 3652 publications, yielded 11 primary studies, for qualitative synthesis with contradictory results, as positive associations/higher risk from 5/7 CVD studies were contradicted by the two studies with largest samples, and data from dementia studies was equally split in their outcome. From the pilot sample of patients analysed (female N = 33, mean age 67.42 (9.70) years), total LM scores had a borderline negative association with PVS in the centrum semiovale at baseline and 6 months (B = -0.25, SE = 0.14, p = 0.06) but were not associated with average brain tissue, WMH or normal-appearing white matter volumes.

The inconclusive results from the literature review and empirical study justify larger studies between PVS volume and paranasal sinuses opacification in patients with sporadic SVD.

Research Article | Open Access

Multifocal motor neuropathy is not associated with altered innate immune responses to endotoxin

Bos et al.

Published online: May 31, 2023

Antibody- and complement-mediated peripheral nerve inflammation are central in the pathogenesis of MMN. Here, we studied innate immune responses to endotoxin in patients with MMN and controls to further our understanding of MMN risk factors and disease modifiers.

Protein level changes after stimulation were comparable between groups (p > 0.05). IL-1RA, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-21 baseline concentrations showed a positive correlation with monthly IVIg dosage (all corrected p-values < 0.016). Patients with anti-GM1 IgM antibodies showed a more pronounced IL-21 increase after stimulation (p 0.048).

Altered endotoxin-induced innate immune responses are unlikely to be a susceptibility factor for MMN.

Research Article

Gender differences in clinical features at the initial examination of late-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Yamashita et al.

Published online: June 2, 2023

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. With the advent of aging societies, the proportion of elderly patients with ALS is expected to increase.

We retrospectively compared the clinical characteristics at the initial examination of patients with onset of ALS at age 74 years or younger (early onset) and those aged 75 years or older at onset (late-onset) at a single regional ALS diagnostic center in Japan.

The phenotype of late-onset ALS differed between males and females, with late-onset females having more bulbar-onset ALS and significantly lower body mass index, late-onset males having more frequent bulbar and respiratory symptoms at the initial examination, and significantly lower forced vital capacity at the initial examination in both groups compared to early onset patients.

For late-onset patients, maintenance of skeletal muscle mass by early intervention for bulbar and respiratory symptoms may be useful for prolonging survival; however, a prospective analysis is warranted.