JNS.jpgThe December issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 443 is now available online.


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Issue highlights

Full length article

Predictors of overlapping autoimmune disease in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum disorder (NMOSD): A retrospective analysis in two inner-city hospitals.

Alvarez et al.

Published online: October 20, 2022

The coexistence of Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with other autoimmune diseases (AD-NMOSD) presents worse clinical outcomes and healthcare costs than NMOSD alone (NMOSD-only). NMOSD and other autoimmune diseases also have a higher prevalence and morbidity in Black. We aim to compare clinical features and treatment responses in NMOSD patients with and without overlapping autoimmunity in a predominantly Black cohort. We further identify predictors associated with each clinical subtype.

Review Article

Open Access

Tips in navigating the diagnostic complexities of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

Lewis et al.

Published online: October 27, 2022

The 2021 guideline of the European Academy of Neurology/Peripheral Nerve Society on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) includes important revisions to the previous 2010 guideline.

This article highlights the new criteria and recommendations for the differential diagnosis of CIDP. In the revised guideline, the CIDP spectrum has been modified to include typical CIDP and four well-characterized CIDP variants, namely distal, multifocal/focal, motor and sensory CIDP, replacing the term 'atypical' CIDP.

To improve the diagnosis of CIDP, the revised guideline attempts to improve the specificity of the diagnostic criteria for typical CIDP and the four CIDP variants. Specific clinical and electrodiagnostic (including both motor and sensory conduction) criteria are provided for typical CIDP and each of the CIDP variants. The levels of diagnostic certainty have been changed to CIDP and possible CIDP, with the removal of probable CIDP (due to the lack of difference in the accuracy of the electrodiagnostic criteria for probable CIDP) and definite CIDP (due to the lack of a gold standard for diagnosis). If the clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria allow only for a diagnosis of possible CIDP, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, nerve ultrasound, nerve magnetic resonance imaging, objective treatment response, and nerve biopsy can be used as supportive criteria to upgrade the diagnosis to CIDP.

Although the revised guideline needs to be validated and its strengths and weaknesses assessed, using the guideline will likely improve the accuracy of diagnosis of CIDP and variants of CIDP, and aid in distinguishing CIDP from conditions with similar features.

Full length article

CDKL5 deficiency causes epileptic seizures independent of cellular mosaicism

Takahashi et al.

Published online: November 15, 2022

In a study using a mouse model of CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD), seizures are specific to female mice heterozygous for Cdkl5 mutations and not observed in hemizygous knockout males or homozygous knockout females. The aim of this study was to examine whether the clinical phenotype of patients with CDD can be impacted by the type of genetic variant.

This study provided evidence that cellular mosaicism of CDKL5 deficiency was not necessarily required for developing epilepsy. CDD patients not only exhibited clinical features of epilepsy but also exhibited the developmental consequences arising directly from the effect of the CDKL5 pathogenic variant.

Full length article

Open Access

Safety and effectiveness of istradefylline as add-on therapy to levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease: Final report of a post-marketing surveillance study in Japan

Takahashi et al.

Published online: October 28, 2022

Istradefylline is approved in Japan and the US for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) in adult patients who experience the wearing-off phenomenon while receiving levodopa; however, safety and efficacy data for real-world clinical use are lacking.

We report the final results of a prospective, long-term, post-marketing surveillance study of istradefylline adjunct to levodopa for adults with PD experiencing the wearing-off phenomenon. Patients across 214 study sites initiating treatment with oral istradefylline once-daily 20- or 40-mg were followed-up for 1 year. We collected demographic data, disease and treatment histories, and recorded adverse events and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The priority survey item was the occurrence of psychiatric ADRs. Effectiveness was evaluated by the physician's global and motor function assessments.

Istradefylline safely and effectively improves motor symptoms in PD patients experiencing the wearing-off phenomenon with levodopa therapy in the real-world setting.