JNS.jpgThe SEPTEMBER issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 428 is now available online.

 

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Issue highlights


Ventriculopleural shunt: Review of literature and novel ways to improve ventriculopleural shunt tolerance

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion is among the most commonneurosurgical procedures that are performed worldwide. It is estimated thatapproximately 30,000 ventriculostomies are performed annually in the United States.Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction rate within the first year of initialimplantation has been reported to be as high as 11–25%. In patients with abdominaladhesions, infections or multiple failed VP shunts, another bodily compartment shouldbe utilized as a substitute for the peritoneal cavity for distal shunt catheter placement.Ventriculopleural (VPL) shunting for hydrocephalus was first introduced by Heile in1914. Since the inception of this idea, VPL shunts have been utilized in select patientswith varying degrees of success. There have been a number of case reports andseries documenting unique complications with VPL shunting, with pleural effusion andpneumothorax being the most common complications.

In our review article, we sought to review the development of VPL shunting, pleuropulmonary physiology, insertiontechniques for VPL shunt, complications associated with VPL shunts, and uniquestrategies to improve VPL shunt tolerance.

Baló's concentric sclerosis – A rare entity within the spectrum of demyelinating diseases

Baló's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, BCS was thought to be uniformly fatal and diagnosis was based on postmortem findings.

With advances in modern neuroimaging, BCS is currently defined by the presence of concentric layered patterns composed of alternating rings of varying intensity. They are best appreciated on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and predominantly occur in the supratentorial cerebral white matter with sparing of cortical U-fibers. The lamellar pattern of the lesions likely reflects bands of demyelination and relative myelin preservation with minimal axonal loss.

While BCS falls within the spectrum of atypical demyelinating diseases, there is ongoing debate over whether BCS is a phenotypical variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) or a separate entity. Corticosteroids comprise first-line therapy but there is ongoing controversy regarding appropriate maintenance therapy. First-line MS disease-modifying therapies such as interferon beta-1a are appropriate for patients who fulfill diagnostic criteria for relapsing-remitting MS. Fingolimod should likely be avoided as Baló-like lesions have been reported during its administration or after withdrawal. Monoclonal antibodies such as natalizumab and rituximab are potentially effective at reducing BCS relapses, but alemtuzumab may be relatively ineffective because humoral immunity does not play a central role in BCS pathogenesis.

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis post COVID-19 vaccination; a systematic review

The common reported adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination consist of the injection site's local reaction followed by several non-specific flu-like symptoms. However, rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2 vaccine) have been reported. Herein we systemically reviewed the reported cases of CVST and VITT following the COVID-19 vaccination.

This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed until May 19, 2021, and the following Keywords were used: COVID Vaccine & Neurology, AstraZeneca COVID vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID vaccine, AZD1222 COVID vaccine, Janssen COVID vaccine, Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine, Ad26.COV2 COVID vaccine. The authors evaluated the abstracts and titles of each article for screening and inclusion. English reports about post-vaccine CVST and VITT in humans were collected.


Neurology of the acute hepatic porphyrias

Porphyrias are a set of rare inherited metabolic disorders, each of them representing a defect in one of the eight enzymes in the haem biosynthetic pathway resulting in the accumulation of organic compounds called porphyrins. Acute hepatic porphyrias (AHP) are those in which the enzyme deficiency occurs in the liver, of which acute intermittent porphyria is by far the most common subtype.

Neurology of the AHP is still challenging in practice, and patients rarely receive the correct diagnosis early in the disease course. For AHP, which primarily affects the central and peripheral nervous system, the cause of symptoms seems to be the increased production of neurotoxic precursors, in particular delta-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. Neurological complications usually result from severe episodes of acute attacks.

The neurologic hallmark of porphyrias is an acute predominantly motor axonal neuropathy resembling a Guillain-Barré syndrome that generally occurs after the onset of other clinical features such as abdominal pain and central nervous system manifestations. Neuropsychiatric syndromes, seizures, encephalopathy, and cerebrovascular disorders are among the possible central nervous system presentations.

Therapeutic approach to AHP is divided into management and prophylaxis of an acute attack, including long standing options such as intravenous hematin and new therapeutic agents such as givosiran.