JNS.jpgThe January issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 408 is now available online.

 

Click here to access

 

Issue highlights

Considering risk factors for the effectiveness of translational therapies in brain stroke

Multiple studies on cerebral ischemia have been performed in animal models to propose different strategies of neuroprotection that mitigate either the early or late consequences of the disease. These therapies have been successful in reducing the volume of infarction, the proinflammatory cascade, and the amount of free radicals, as well as reversing markers of neurodegeneration, among other events. However, when those strategies are translated to clinical studies, their effectiveness is not reproduced.

This review will focus on highlighting some of the main limitations of the animal models of stroke that lead to unsuccessful translational therapies and the common risk factors in humans that should be carefully considered in the experimental design of future studies to generate a more realistic spatiotemporal physiopathology and improve therapeutic efficacy in cerebral ischemia.


Antiganglioside antibodies in neurological diseases

  • Antiganglioside antibodies are implicated in neuropathies and neurodegeneration
  • Antibodies are generated due to molecular mimicry.
  • Gangliosides influence cell signaling and neuroplasticity.
  • Antibody binding leads to nerve conduction blocks and axonal degeneration.
  • Antiganglioside antibodies participate in paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy.

Prognostic value of MR spectroscopy in patients with acute excitotoxic encephalopathy

Acute excitotoxic encephalopathy is the most common encephalopathy syndrome in Japan, and consists of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) and mild encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity (MEEX). Neurological sequelae remain in approximately 70% of patients with AESD, however, it is difficult to predict the prognosis early in the course.

  • Brain metabolites observed on MRS are evaluated as to they can predict the outcome.
  • Decreased NAA, decreased Cr, and increased Lac will predict a poor neurological outcome.
  • Decreased NAA will be the most effective metabolite for prognosis prediction.